Controlling of CO2 emission in buildings: An overview
Author(s): N Anuja, B Akalya, R Karthika and P Venkateshwari
Abstract: Normally buildings generate nearly 40% of annual global CO2 emissions throughout the world. Of the total emissions, building operations are responsible for 28% annually, while building materials and construction (typically referred to as embodied carbon) are responsible for an additional 11% annually. For every 1.0 Ton of cement produced, 0.8 Ton of CO2 was emitted. Also, depletion of natural resources could be caused by excessive use of conventional aggregates (granite, gravel etc.) and their quarrying could lead to environmental issues. Three construction materials such as concrete, steel, and aluminum are responsible for 23% of total global emissions. Direct and indirect emissions from building operations is about 9 GT in 2020, after having risen an average 1% per year since 2010. In 2020 a drop in buildings sector CO2 emissions resulted primarily from lower activity in the services sector. Despite the expected rebound in emissions in 2021 being moderated by continued power sector decarbonization, buildings remain off track to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050. To meet this target, all new buildings and 20% of the existing building stock would need to be zero-carbon-ready as soon as 2030. Agricultural residues have recently been adopted in concrete in different forms, some of which are as geopolymer reinforcement, replacement of aggregates and replacement of cement. An overview on studies carried out on selected agricultural residues used as partial substitution for cement in mortar and concrete is presented in this paper.